Our Mission:

We seek to translate inferences from evolutionary biology to improve human health and empower K-12 education. Click here to learn more about our research.


Microbial Genomics Sequencing

We offer high-throughput sequencing services on Illumina's NextSeq 500 platform. In addition to this, we offer custom bioinformatic services to suit any of your microbial genetics needs. Click here to learn more about the services we offer.


The best way to learn and encourage excitement in young people about science is through a hands-on approach. The EvolvingSTEM program provides a ready-to-implement hands-on curriculum for high schoolers to learn evolution, microbiology, basic biotechnology, and get excited about STEM research careers.




ASM COMS: outreach and greater transparency

Position Statement

I’m honored to have been elected Chair of the Council of Microbial Sciences (COMS) of the American Society of Microbiology, which includes the representatives of all scientific Divisions and local Branches. Our mission is to “support the work of ASM by prioritizing the scientific focus of the Society and identifying upcoming opportunities in microbial sciences and scientific trends to ensure effective programs and scientific activities that benefit the members and the scientific community at large.” My goals are to increase transparency, broaden engagement and support community-building in our focus areas.  I am thrilled to be a “brand ambassador” for ASM and look forward to serving the field of microbiology with a focus on education and outreach.

In the interest of transparency, I’ve posted my original statement of candidacy here as well as my remarks at the COMS meeting during ASM Microbe 2018 in Atlanta. Comments are encouraged.

Statement of candidacy

It is an amazing time to be an evolutionary biologist and microbiologist.

I’m an evangelist for the study of microbial evolution-in-action. I love sharing how powerful experimental evolution can be for understanding how microbes work, particularly when combined with contemporary genomics and bioinformatics. This approach is broadly relevant to all of the disciplines represented by the ASM, from host-microbe interactions, to applied microbiology, to education. At the same time, technology is enabling us, for the first time, to study microbes as individuals as well as members of populations, and identify major transitions in phenotypes as we scale from cell to population to mixed communities.

My laboratory focuses on pathogen evolution that occurs during acute and chronic infections, eco-evolutionary dynamics in biofilms, why genome regions mutate/evolve at different rates, and molecular-genetic mechanisms of bacterial adaptation. Perhaps our most important work has been enabling students to learn evolution and heredity by hands-on experiments with microbes. We are working to distribute this curriculum broadly to high schools around the country.

I was glad to serve on the organizing committee for the ASM Meetings on Experimental Microbial Evolution in 2014 and 2016, and with the end of these meetings want to carry the tremendous enthusiasm from this community forward within the ASM. I’ve been an ASM member since 2000, following Vic DiRita’s advice that it would be the most valuable professional organization I could join. Previously at the University of New Hampshire I was the Chair for the Undergraduate Research Conference, one of the nation’s largest such events. I also supported the local student ASM chapter. Now at the University Pittsburgh School of Medicine, I am Director and co-founder of the Center for Evolutionary Biology and Medicine. I am also Associate Director of the Centers for Medicine and the Microbiome and Innovative Antimicrobial Therapy at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

My vision is to encourage and support education, research, outreach, and scientific-communication activities that allow ASM members to realize the “systems-level” perspectives embodied by the “m-Journals” and apply them to any level of inquiry. We are more than ever in a position to continually ask “why” questions that broaden the relevance of our fields for society as whole, and help us solve some of society’s most pressing challenges.

Remarks at the COMS meeting (5 minutes)

  • I’m honored by the nomination, thank you.
  • This is only my second formal experience w / ASM leadership, my first being the Microbial Evolution and Ecology focus group held in Dec 2017.
  • We learned a lot at that successful retreat
    • We draw from several academic communities comprising research and researchers for whom ASM is not HOME (e.g. ASV, ISME)
    • That feeling of a lack of representation means that many aren’t in the habit of presenting their best work here at Microbe
    • Some of us feel disenfranchised by the loss of satellite meetings (e.g. the ASM Experimental Microbial Evolution meeting in 2014 and 2016)
    • Some of us feel that ASM journals don’t provide a venue for our best work, and that the Editorial Boards do not represent leaders in our particular disciplines
  • Yet there are tremendous opportunities for both grassroots and formal community-building
    • Witness the casual get-together for the EEB group at a local pub here Friday
    • Witness the newly announced conference grants program to support these initiatives
    • Witness the remarkable interdisciplinary of several symposia here at Microbe
  • These EEB successes provide a template for community building here. I think these focus group meetings- both at ASM HQ and in other venues - are a great way forward.
  • I would want to attend more of these meetings to learn about the best of what we can anticipate from each community, and what opportunities we can’t miss.
  • I will commit to serve as a listener and brand ambassador for ASM at other meetings to solicit input from groups whose research interests are allied with ours.
  • Above all, by listening and asking questions we will discover new high energy partners who can help us promote our best research, education, and outreach.
  • The motivation: to broaden our community. Many hands make light work!

  • A little bit about my approach:
    • I believe in and practice shared leadership
    • I believe that we are all population biologists and that by embracing this we can provide leadership to a range of basic + applied fields (microbiome)
    • I believe we are organismal biologists and that we ought to embrace our expertise and current technology that enables a single-cell understanding, which is relevant to engineering and synthetic biology
    • I believe that no other life-science field has greater promise for hands-on learning and inquiry in primary and secondary education.
    • I hope that you share these views and can help convert them into successful initiatives that empower the next generation of microbiologists

On a personal note:

  • I know that it’s the best-ever time to be an evolutionary microbiologist. We can watch the process of evolution unfold in real-time and then decode and assemble this process into a narrative facilitated by the deep knowledge that microbial geneticists, physiologists, host-microbe interaction researchers, and others have shared.
  • Every evolution experiment reminds me that I stand on many shoulders — most from ASM - and I am so grateful.
  • Thank you for your attention and for sharing this opportunity with me.

whoah this blog is magnificent i love studying your articles. Keep up the great work! You already know, lots of persons are searching round for this information, you can help them greatly.

<a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/allegra.php>order allegra online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/lipitor.php>buy lipitor</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/lipitor20.php>buy generic lipitor 20 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/crestor.php>buy Crestor online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/mevacor.php>buy mevacor online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zetia.php>purchase zetia</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zetia.php>order zetia 10 mg online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zocor.php>buy generic zocor</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zyban.php>zyban 150 mg cost</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/altace.php>order altace</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/paxil20.php>paxil 20 mg price</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/effexor.php>buy effexor 75 mg online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/celexa.php>discount celexa 20 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/lexapro.php>purchase lexapro 20 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/celebrex.php>celebrex cost</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/propecia.php>propecia 1 mg low price</a> <a href=http://clotrimazole.ga>clotrimazole cost</a> <a href=http://clotrimazole.ga/acheter_clotrimazole.html>achat clotrimazole</a> <a href=http://clotrimazole.ga/clotrimazole_kaufen.html>kaufen billige clotrimazole</a> <a href=http://clotrimazole.ga/comprare_clotrimazole.html>clotrimazole medica farmaci</a> <a href=http://clotrimazole.ga/comprar_clotrimazole.html>barato clotrimazole</a> <a href=http://alendronates.ga>buy discount Alendronate sodium</a> <a href=http://alendronates.ga/achat-alendronate.html>acheter fosamax</a> <a href=http://alendronates.ga/bestellen-alendronate.html>bestellen Alendronate sodium</a> <a href=http://alendronates.ga/compra-alendronate.html>fosamax basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://alendronates.ga/comprar-alendronate.html>barato Alendronate sodium</a> <a href=http://cetirizine1.gq>cheap Cetirizine</a> <a href=http://cetirizine1.gq/acheter_cetirizine.html>zyrtec pilules en ligne</a> <a href=http://cetirizine1.gq/cetirizine_kaufen.html>kaufen zyrtec online</a> <a href=http://cetirizine1.gq/comprare_cetirizine.html>comprare Cetirizine online</a> <a href=http://cetirizine1.gq/comprar_cetirizine.html>comprar genérico Cetirizine</a> <a href=http://herealendronate.gdn>buy fosamax</a> <a href=http://herealendronate.gdn/achat_alendronate.html>achat Alendronate sodium en ligne</a> <a href=http://herealendronate.gdn/kaufen_alendronat.html>bestellen fosamax online</a> <a href=http://herealendronate.gdn/comprare_alendronato.html>fosamax basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://herealendronate.gdn/comprar_alendronato.html>orden Alendronate sodium</a> <a href=http://pantoprazoles.stream/>Protonix cost</a> <a href=http://pantoprazoles.stream/achat-pantoprazole.html>Protonix pilules en ligne</a> <a href=http://pantoprazoles.stream/bestellen-pantoprazole.html>kaufen Pantoprazole</a> <a href=http://pantoprazoles.stream/compra-pantoprazole.html>comprare generico Pantoprazole</a> <a href=http://pantoprazoles.stream/comprar-pantoprazole.html>barato Protonix</a> <a href=http://onlytetracycline.gdn>buy tetracycline</a> <a href=http://onlytetracycline.gdn/acheter_tetracycline.html>Sumycin pilules en ligne</a> <a href=http://onlytetracycline.gdn/tetracycline_kaufen.html>bestellen Sumycin</a> <a href=http://onlytetracycline.gdn/comprare_tetracycline.html>comprare generico tetracycline</a> <a href=http://onlytetracycline.gdn/comprar_tetracycline.html>tetracycline precio bajo</a> <a href=http://hereclotrimazole.gdn>buy clotrimazole online</a> <a href=http://hereclotrimazole.gdn/acheter-clotrimazole.html>acheter clotrimazole en ligne</a> <a href=http://hereclotrimazole.gdn/clotrimazol-kaufen.html>clotrimazole preiswert</a> <a href=http://hereclotrimazole.gdn/comprare-clotrimazolo.html>comprare generico clotrimazole</a> <a href=http://hereclotrimazole.gdn/comprar-clotrimazol.html>clotrimazole precio bajo</a> <a href=http://themethotrexate.gdn>order rheumatrex</a> <a href=http://themethotrexate.gdn/acheter-methotrexate.html>acheter au rabais methotrexate</a> <a href=http://themethotrexate.gdn/methotrexat-kaufen.html>kaufen rheumatrex online</a> <a href=http://themethotrexate.gdn/comprare-metotressato.html>methotrexate basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://themethotrexate.gdn/comprar-metotrexato.html>orden methotrexate</a> <a href=http://themetronidazole.gdn>cheap metronidazole</a> <a href=http://themetronidazole.gdn/acheter-metronidazole.html>acheter générique metronidazole</a> <a href=http://themetronidazole.gdn/metronidazol-kaufen.html>Flagyl pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://themetronidazole.gdn/comprare-metronidazolo.html>metronidazole basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://themetronidazole.gdn/comprar-metronidazol.html>comprar metronidazole</a> <a href=http://thatatorvastatin.gdn>cheap lipitor</a> <a href=http://thatatorvastatin.gdn/achat-atorvastatin.html>achat lipitor</a> <a href=http://thatatorvastatin.gdn/bestellen-atorvastatin.html>kaufen lipitor</a> <a href=http://thatatorvastatin.gdn/compra-atorvastatin.html>farmaci online lipitor</a> <a href=http://thatatorvastatin.gdn/comprar-atorvastatin.html>Atorvastatin pastillas online</a> <a href=http://thisfinasteride.gdn>purchase propecia</a> <a href=http://thisfinasteride.gdn/acheter_finasteride.html>achat propecia en ligne</a> <a href=http://thisfinasteride.gdn/finasteride_kaufen.html>billige Finasteride</a> <a href=http://thisfinasteride.gdn/comprare_finasteride.html>comprare pillole online Finasteride</a> <a href=http://thisfinasteride.gdn/comprar_finasteride.html>comprar propecia online</a> <a href=http://thesimvastatin.gdn>buy generic simvastatin</a> <a href=http://thesimvastatin.gdn/acheter-simvastatine.html>acheter au rabais zocor</a> <a href=http://thesimvastatin.gdn/simvastatin-kaufen.html>zocor preiswert</a> <a href=http://thesimvastatin.gdn/comprare-simvastatina.html>simvastatin medica farmaci</a> <a href=http://thesimvastatin.gdn/comprar-simvastatina.html>simvastatin precio bajo</a> <a href=http://lovastatinn.gq>discount Lovastatin</a> <a href=http://lovastatinn.gq/acheter_lovastatin.html>achat mevacor en ligne</a> <a href=http://lovastatinn.gq/lovastatin_kaufen.html>kaufen generika mevacor</a> <a href=http://lovastatinn.gq/comprare_lovastatin.html>comprare pillole online mevacor</a> <a href=http://lovastatinn.gq/comprar_lovastatin.html>comprar Lovastatin</a> <a href=http://cetirizinee.gq>buy Cetirizine</a> <a href=http://cetirizinee.gq/acheter-cetirizine.html>achat zyrtec en ligne</a> <a href=http://cetirizinee.gq/cetirizin-kaufen.html> pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://cetirizinee.gq/comprare-cetirizina.html>comprare zyrtec online</a> <a href=http://cetirizinee.gq/comprar-cetirizina.html> pastillas online</a> <a href=http://simvastatinn.gq>buy generic simvastatin</a> <a href=http://simvastatinn.gq/acheter-simvastatine.html>zocor pharmacie en ligne</a> <a href=http://simvastatinn.gq/simvastatin-kaufen.html>zocor preiswert</a> <a href=http://simvastatinn.gq/comprare-simvastatina.html>comprare zocor online</a> <a href=http://simvastatinn.gq/comprar-simvastatina.html>farmacia online simvastatin</a> <a href=http://venlafaxinee.gq>Venlafaxine cost</a> <a href=http://venlafaxinee.gq/acheter_venlafaxine.html>achat Effexor</a> <a href=http://venlafaxinee.gq/venlafaxine_kaufen.html>kaufen generika Venlafaxine</a> <a href=http://venlafaxinee.gq/comprare_venlafaxine.html>Effexor prezzo online</a> <a href=http://venlafaxinee.gq/comprar_venlafaxine.html>farmacia online venlor</a> <a href=http://methotrexatee.gq>buy discount methotrexate</a> <a href=http://methotrexatee.gq/acheter_methotrexate.html>methotrexate pilules en ligne</a> <a href=http://methotrexatee.gq/methotrexate_kaufen.html>bestellen medikamente rheumatrex</a> <a href=http://methotrexatee.gq/comprare_methotrexate.html>rheumatrex prezzo online</a> <a href=http://methotrexatee.gq/comprar_methotrexate.html>rheumatrex comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://metronidazolee.gq>buy Flagyl online</a> <a href=http://metronidazolee.gq/acheter_metronidazole.html>acheter au rabais metronidazole</a> <a href=http://metronidazolee.gq/metronidazole_kaufen.html>kaufen Flagyl online</a> <a href=http://metronidazolee.gq/comprare_metronidazole.html>comprare Flagyl online</a> <a href=http://metronidazolee.gq/comprar_metronidazole.html>comprar genérico Flagyl</a> <a href=http://heretrazodone.gq>buy discount desyrel</a> <a href=http://heretrazodone.gq/achat-trazodone.html>desyrel pilules en ligne</a> <a href=http://heretrazodone.gq/trazodon-bestellen.html>bestellen medikamente trazodone</a> <a href=http://heretrazodone.gq/comprare-trazodone.html>farmaci online desyrel</a> <a href=http://heretrazodone.gq/comprar-trazodona.html>barato trazodone</a> <a href=http://onlineestrogen.gq>buy Estrace online</a> <a href=http://onlineestrogen.gq/achat-estrogene.html>pharmacie acheter estrogen</a> <a href=http://onlineestrogen.gq/bestellen-ostrogen.html>kaufen Estrace online</a> <a href=http://onlineestrogen.gq/comprare-estrogeni.html>ordine Estrace online</a> <a href=http://onlineestrogen.gq/comprar-estrogeno.html>farmacia online Estrace</a> <a href=http://thealbuterolonline.gq>Combivent low price</a> <a href=http://thealbuterolonline.gq/acheter_albuterol.html>achat Albuterol en ligne</a> <a href=http://thealbuterolonline.gq/albuterol_kaufen.html>kaufen Albuterol</a> <a href=http://thealbuterolonline.gq/comprare_albuterol.html>comprare generico Albuterol</a> <a href=http://thealbuterolonline.gq/comprar_albuterol.html>comprar Albuterol online</a> <a href=http://onlyestrogen.gq>order estrogen</a> <a href=http://onlyestrogen.gq/achat_estrogen.html>pharmacie acheter estrogen</a> <a href=http://onlyestrogen.gq/bestellen_estrogen.html>kaufen Estrace</a> <a href=http://onlyestrogen.gq/compra_estrogen.html>compra estrogen</a> <a href=http://onlyestrogen.gq/comprar_estrogen.html>Estrace comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://herefinasteride.gq>order propecia</a> <a href=http://herefinasteride.gq/acheter_finasteride.html>pharmacie acheter propecia</a> <a href=http://herefinasteride.gq/finasteride_kaufen.html>kaufen generika Finasteride</a> <a href=http://herefinasteride.gq/comprare_finasteride.html>comprare Finasteride</a> <a href=http://herefinasteride.gq/comprar_finasteride.html>barato Finasteride</a> <a href=http://thetetracycline.gq>buy Sumycin</a> <a href=http://thetetracycline.gq/acheter_tetracycline.html>acheter générique tetracycline</a> <a href=http://thetetracycline.gq/tetracycline_kaufen.html>tetracycline pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://thetetracycline.gq/comprare_tetracycline.html>farmaci online tetracycline</a> <a href=http://thetetracycline.gq/comprar_tetracycline.html>descuento tetracycline</a> <a href=http://thetriamcinolone.gq>purchase aristocort</a> <a href=http://thetriamcinolone.gq/acheter_triamcinolone.html>pharmacie acheter triamcinolone</a> <a href=http://thetriamcinolone.gq/triamcinolone_kaufen.html>aristocort preiswert</a> <a href=http://thetriamcinolone.gq/comprare_triamcinolone.html>aristocort basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://thetriamcinolone.gq/comprar_triamcinolone.html>triamcinolone comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://onlypantoprazole.gq>cheap Pantoprazole</a> <a href=http://onlypantoprazole.gq/achat-pantoprazole.html>Protonix pharmacie en ligne</a> <a href=http://onlypantoprazole.gq/bestellen-pantoprazole.html>Pantoprazole preiswert</a> <a href=http://onlypantoprazole.gq/compra-pantoprazole.html>comprare pillole online Protonix</a> <a href=http://onlypantoprazole.gq/comprar-pantoprazole.html>farmacia online Pantoprazole</a> <a href=http://thecelecoxib.gq>order celebrex</a> <a href=http://thecelecoxib.gq/achat-celecoxib.html>achat celebrex en ligne</a> <a href=http://thecelecoxib.gq/bestellen-celecoxib.html>bestellen medikamente Celecoxib</a> <a href=http://thecelecoxib.gq/compra-celecoxib.html>comprare pillole online Celecoxib</a> <a href=http://thecelecoxib.gq/comprar-celecoxib.html>Celecoxib comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://herequetiapine.gq>purchase seroquel</a> <a href=http://herequetiapine.gq/achat-quetiapine.html>acheter au rabais Quetiapine</a> <a href=http://herequetiapine.gq/bestellen-quetiapine.html>kaufen generika seroquel</a> <a href=http://herequetiapine.gq/compra-quetiapine.html>comprare generico Quetiapine</a> <a href=http://herequetiapine.gq/comprar-quetiapine.html>descuento Quetiapine</a> <a href=http://onlyatorvastatin.gq>lipitor low price</a> <a href=http://onlyatorvastatin.gq/achat-atorvastatin.html>Atorvastatin bas prix</a> <a href=http://onlyatorvastatin.gq/bestellen-atorvastatin.html>lipitor pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://onlyatorvastatin.gq/compra-atorvastatin.html>farmaci online Atorvastatin</a> <a href=http://onlyatorvastatin.gq/comprar-atorvastatin.html>comprar genérico Atorvastatin</a> <a href=http://thebuspirone.gq>buspar price</a> <a href=http://thebuspirone.gq/acheter_buspirone.html>buspar pilules en ligne</a> <a href=http://thebuspirone.gq/buspirone_kaufen.html>bestellen Buspirone</a> <a href=http://thebuspirone.gq/comprare_buspirone.html>comprare pillole online Buspirone</a> <a href=http://thebuspirone.gq/comprar_buspirone.html>comprar genérico Buspirone</a> <a href=http://onlineamitriptyline.gq>elavil low price</a> <a href=http://onlineamitriptyline.gq/acheter_amitriptyline.html>acheter au rabais elavil</a> <a href=http://onlineamitriptyline.gq/amitriptyline_kaufen.html>kaufen Amitriptyline</a> <a href=http://onlineamitriptyline.gq/comprare_amitriptyline.html>elavil prezzo online</a> <a href=http://onlineamitriptyline.gq/comprar_amitriptyline.html>orden elavil online</a> <a href=http://theparoxetine.gq>purchase paroxetine</a> <a href=http://theparoxetine.gq/acheter_paroxetine.html>achat paroxetine en ligne</a> <a href=http://theparoxetine.gq/paroxetine_kaufen.html>kaufen generika Paxil</a> <a href=http://theparoxetine.gq/comprare_paroxetine.html>comprare paroxetine</a> <a href=http://theparoxetine.gq/comprar_paroxetine.html>comprar descuento paroxetine</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq>malaria drugs</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq/malariafr.html>malaria lariam</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq/malariade.html>AntiMalaria medikamente</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq/malariapt.html>sintomas da malária</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq/malariaes.html>malaria lariam</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq/malariait.html>Trattamento di Malaria</a> <a href=http://buspirone1.gq>buy buspar</a> <a href=http://buspirone1.gq/acheter_buspirone.html>acheter Buspirone</a> <a href=http://buspirone1.gq/buspirone_kaufen.html>Buspirone preiswert</a> <a href=http://buspirone1.gq/comprare_buspirone.html>Buspirone prezzo online</a> <a href=http://buspirone1.gq/comprar_buspirone.html>comprar buspar online</a> <a href=http://citalopramm.gq>discount celexa</a> <a href=http://citalopramm.gq/acheter_citalopram.html>commande Citalopram</a> <a href=http://citalopramm.gq/citalopram_kaufen.html>kaufen celexa online</a> <a href=http://citalopramm.gq/comprare_citalopram.html>celexa basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://citalopramm.gq/comprar_citalopram.html>celexa pastillas online</a> <a href=http://onlyerythromycine.gdn>ilosone price</a> <a href=http://onlyerythromycine.gdn/acheter-erythromycine.html>au rabais Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://onlyerythromycine.gdn/erythromycin-kaufen.html>Erythromycin pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://onlyerythromycine.gdn/comprare-eritromicina.html>comprare ilosone</a> <a href=http://onlyerythromycine.gdn/comprar-eritromicina.html>farmacia online Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://antabusee.gq>buy discount disulfiram</a> <a href=http://antabusee.gq/achat-antabuse.html>achat Antabuse en ligne</a> <a href=http://antabusee.gq/bestellen-antabuse.html>kaufen apotheke disulfiram</a> <a href=http://antabusee.gq/compra-antabuse.html>farmaci online disulfiram</a> <a href=http://antabusee.gq/comprar-antabuse.html>comprar disulfiram online</a> <a href=http://fluconazoles.gq>cheap Diflucan</a> <a href=http://fluconazoles.gq/acheter_fluconazole.php>acheter Diflucan</a> <a href=http://fluconazoles.gq/fluconazole_kaufen.php>Diflucan pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://fluconazoles.gq/comprare_fluconazole.php>ordine fluconazole online</a> <a href=http://fluconazoles.gq/comprar_fluconazole.php>comprar genérico fluconazole</a> <a href=http://thisamoxicillin.gdn>Amoxicillin cost</a> <a href=http://thisamoxicillin.gdn/acheter_amoxicillin.html>amoxil pharmacie en ligne</a> <a href=http://thisamoxicillin.gdn/amoxicillin_kaufen.html>kaufen billige amoxil</a> <a href=http://thisamoxicillin.gdn/comprare_amoxicillin.html>farmaci online Amoxicillin</a> <a href=http://thisamoxicillin.gdn/comprar_amoxicillin.html>Amoxicillin precio bajo</a> <a href=http://justazithromycinhere.gdn>order zithromax</a> <a href=http://justazithromycinhere.gdn/acheter-azithromycine.html>acheter au rabais zithromax</a> <a href=http://justazithromycinhere.gdn/azithromycin-kaufen.html>bestellen Azithromycin</a> <a href=http://justazithromycinhere.gdn/comprare-azitromicina.html>zithromax medica farmaci</a> <a href=http://justazithromycinhere.gdn/comprar-azitromicina.html>orden Azithromycin online</a> <a href=http://penisenlargement.science>order Penis Extender Deluxe</a> <a href=http://onlypropranolol.gdn>order inderal online</a> <a href=http://onlypropranolol.gdn/acheter_propranolol.html>acheter au rabais Propranolol</a> <a href=http://onlypropranolol.gdn/propranolol_kaufen.html>inderal preiswert</a> <a href=http://onlypropranolol.gdn/comprare_propranolol.html>Propranolol basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://onlypropranolol.gdn/comprar_propranolol.html>inderal comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://thequetiapine.gdn>buy generic seroquel</a> <a href=http://thequetiapine.gdn/achat-quetiapine.html>Quetiapine bas prix</a> <a href=http://thequetiapine.gdn/bestellen-quetiapine.html>bestellen medikamente seroquel</a> <a href=http://thequetiapine.gdn/compra-quetiapine.html>comprare Quetiapine</a> <a href=http://thequetiapine.gdn/comprar-quetiapine.html>comprar descuento seroquel</a> <a href=http://thyroxyne1.stream>discount Levothyroxine</a> <a href=http://thyroxyne1.stream/acheter-thyroxine.html>synthroid pilules en ligne</a> <a href=http://thyroxyne1.stream/thyroxin-bestellen.html>kaufen billige Levothyroxine</a> <a href=http://thyroxyne1.stream/comprare-tiroxina.html>comprare Levothyroxine</a> <a href=http://thyroxyne1.stream/comprar-tiroxina.html>farmacia online synthroid</a> <a href=http://thatciprofloxacin.gdn>discount Ciprofloxacin</a> <a href=http://thatciprofloxacin.gdn/acheter_ciprofloxacin.html>acheter cipro</a> <a href=http://thatciprofloxacin.gdn/ciprofloxacin_kaufen.html>Ciprofloxacin pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://thatciprofloxacin.gdn/comprare_ciprofloxacin.html>ordine Ciprofloxacin</a> <a href=http://thatciprofloxacin.gdn/comprar_ciprofloxacin.html>orden Ciprofloxacin</a> <a href=http://thebupropion.gdn>buy Wellbutrin Sr</a> <a href=http://thebupropion.gdn/achat-bupropion.html>Wellbutrin Sr pharmacie en ligne</a> <a href=http://thebupropion.gdn/bupropion-bestellen.html>Bupropion pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://thebupropion.gdn/comprare-bupropione.html>ordine Wellbutrin Sr</a> <a href=http://thebupropion.gdn/comprar-bupropion.html>farmacia online zyban</a> <a href=http://hereerythromycin.gdn>cheap Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://hereerythromycin.gdn/erythromycin_acheter.html>acheter générique Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://hereerythromycin.gdn/erythromycin_kaufen.html>bestellen Erythromycin online</a> <a href=http://hereerythromycin.gdn/erythromycin_comprare.html>comprare ilosone online</a> <a href=http://hereerythromycin.gdn/erythromycin_comprar.html>barato Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://onlysildenafil.gq>buy Sildenafil</a> <a href=http://onlysildenafil.gq/acheter_sildenafil.html>acheter au rabais viagra</a> <a href=http://onlysildenafil.gq/sildenafil_bestellen.html>billige viagra</a> <a href=http://onlysildenafil.gq/comprare_sildenafil.html>comprare viagra</a> <a href=http://onlysildenafil.gq/comprar_sildenafil.html>viagra pastillas online</a> <a href=http://misoprostols.gq>cheap Cytotec</a> <a href=http://misoprostols.gq/acheter_misoprostol.html>acheter au rabais Misoprostol</a> <a href=http://misoprostols.gq/misoprostol_kaufen.html>kaufen Cytotec</a> <a href=http://misoprostols.gq/comprare_misoprostol.html>comprare Misoprostol</a> <a href=http://misoprostols.gq/comprar_misoprostol.html>orden Misoprostol online</a> <a href=http://propranololl.gq>buy generic inderal</a> <a href=http://propranololl.gq/acheter_propranolol.html>acheter générique inderal</a> <a href=http://propranololl.gq/propranolol_kaufen.html>Propranolol preiswert</a> <a href=http://propranololl.gq/comprare_propranolol.html>Propranolol basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://propranololl.gq/comprar_propranolol.html>descuento inderal</a> <a href=http://sertralinee.gq>order zoloft</a> <a href=http://sertralinee.gq/acheter_sertraline.html>sertraline pharmacie en ligne</a> <a href=http://sertralinee.gq/sertraline_kaufen.html>sertraline preiswert</a> <a href=http://sertralinee.gq/comprare_sertraline.html>ordine sertraline online</a> <a href=http://sertralinee.gq/comprar_sertraline.html>orden sertraline online</a> <a href=http://fluoxetinee.gq>buy generic fluoxetine</a> <a href=http://fluoxetinee.gq/acheter-fluoxetine.html>acheter générique prozac</a> <a href=http://fluoxetinee.gq/fluoxetin-bestellen.html>kaufen prozac online</a> <a href=http://fluoxetinee.gq/comprare-fluoxetina.html>comprare pillole online prozac</a> <a href=http://fluoxetinee.gq/comprar-fluoxetina.html>farmacia online fluoxetine</a> <a href=http://azithromycinn.gq>zithromax low price</a> <a href=http://azithromycinn.gq/acheter-azithromycine.html>Azithromycin bas prix</a> <a href=http://azithromycinn.gq/azithromycin-kaufen.html>bestellen zithromax online</a> <a href=http://azithromycinn.gq/comprare-azitromicina.html>comprare generico Azithromycin</a> <a href=http://azithromycinn.gq/comprar-azitromicina.html>barato zithromax</a> <a href=http://herealbuterol.gq>Proventil low price</a> <a href=http://herealbuterol.gq/achat-albuterol.html>pharmacie acheter Albuterol</a> <a href=http://herealbuterol.gq/albuterol-kaufen.html>bestellen medikamente Proventil</a> <a href=http://herealbuterol.gq/comprare-salbutamolo.html>ordine Proventil</a> <a href=http://herealbuterol.gq/comprar-albuterol.html>Combivent pastillas online</a> <a href=http://onlytamsulosin.gq>cheap tamsulosin</a> <a href=http://onlytamsulosin.gq/acheter_tamsulosine.html>au rabais tamsulosin</a> <a href=http://onlytamsulosin.gq/tamsulosin_kaufen.html>kaufen generika flomax</a> <a href=http://onlytamsulosin.gq/comprare_tamsulosina.html>flomax prezzo online</a> <a href=http://onlytamsulosin.gq/comprar_tamsulosina.html>orden tamsulosin online</a> <a href=http://thevardenafilonline.gq>purchase vardenafil</a> <a href=http://thevardenafilonline.gq/achat_vardenafil.html>vardenafil pilules en ligne</a> <a href=http://thevardenafilonline.gq/vardenafil_bestellen.html>bestellen vardenafil</a> <a href=http://thevardenafilonline.gq/acquisitare_vardenafil.html>ordine vardenafil</a> <a href=http://thevardenafilonline.gq/comprar_vardenafilo.html>levitra precio bajo</a> <a href=http://wheredoxepin.gq>buy discount sinequan</a> <a href=http://wheredoxepin.gq/acheter_doxepin.html>achat sinequan en ligne</a> <a href=http://wheredoxepin.gq/doxepin_kaufen.html>Doxepin preis online</a> <a href=http://wheredoxepin.gq/comprare_doxepin.html>Doxepin basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://wheredoxepin.gq/comprar_doxepin.html>comprar sinequan</a> <a href=http://onlinelevothyroxine.gq>Levothyroxine cost</a> <a href=http://onlinelevothyroxine.gq/levothyroxine_achat.html>commande synthroid</a> <a href=http://onlinelevothyroxine.gq/levothyroxine_bestellen.html>Levothyroxine preis online</a> <a href=http://onlinelevothyroxine.gq/levothyroxine_comprare.html>comprare synthroid online</a> <a href=http://onlinelevothyroxine.gq/levothyroxine_comprar.html>comprar descuento synthroid</a> <a href=http://heredoxycycline.gq>order Doxycycline</a> <a href=http://heredoxycycline.gq/acheter_doxycycline.php>achat Doxycycline</a> <a href=http://heredoxycycline.gq/doxycycline_kaufen.php>billige Doxycycline</a> <a href=http://heredoxycycline.gq/comprare_doxycycline.php>Doxycycline prezzo online</a> <a href=http://heredoxycycline.gq/comprar_doxycycline.php>orden Doxycycline online</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq>antibiotics advice</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-class.html>antibiotics class</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-types.html>Penicillins bactericidal</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-resistance.html>antibiotics resistance</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-production.html>production of antibiotics</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-penicillin.html>Penicillin</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-erythromycin.html>Erythromycin capsules</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-azithromycin.html>Azithromycin</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-tetracycline.html>Tetracycline antibiotics</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-amoxicillin.html>Amoxicillin tablet</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/effexor.php>effexor price</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/celexa.php>order celexa online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/lexapro.php>buy discount lexapro</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/celebrex.php>order celebrex 200 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/propecia.php>cheap propecia</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/avandia.php>avandia 4 mg low price</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/avandia8.php>order avandia 8 mg online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/levaquin.php>buy levaquin 500 mg online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zithromax500.php>buy generic zithromax</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zithromax.php>zithromax cost</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/keflex.php>order keflex 500 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/keflex250.php>order keflex</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/danazol.php>Danazol 200 mg low price</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/danazol100.php>cheap Danazol</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/danazol50.php>cheap Danazol 50 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/clomid.php>cheap clomid</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/diflucan.php>order diflucan</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/evista.php>cheap evista 60 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/fosamax.php>buy fosamax 10 mg online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/flomax.php>purchase flomax 0.4 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/nexium.php>order nexium online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/index.php>online phermacy</a>

Attractive section of content. I simply stumbled upon your weblog and in accession capital to say that I acquire in fact loved account your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing in your augment or even I achievement you get right of entry to persistently rapidly.

<a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/allegra.php>allegra 180 mg cost</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/lipitor.php>purchase lipitor 40 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/lipitor20.php>lipitor low price</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/crestor.php>discount Crestor</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/mevacor.php>mevacor low price</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zetia.php>order zetia online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zetia.php>order zetia online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zocor.php>buy zocor 40 mg online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zyban.php>order zyban</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/altace.php>altace 5 mg low price</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/paxil20.php>buy generic paxil</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/effexor.php>buy effexor</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/celexa.php>order celexa 20 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/lexapro.php>lexapro 20 mg cost</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/celebrex.php>buy discount celebrex 200 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/propecia.php>propecia low price</a> <a href=http://clotrimazole.ga>clotrimazole price</a> <a href=http://clotrimazole.ga/acheter_clotrimazole.html>commande clotrimazole</a> <a href=http://clotrimazole.ga/clotrimazole_kaufen.html>bestellen medikamente clotrimazole</a> <a href=http://clotrimazole.ga/comprare_clotrimazole.html>clotrimazole basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://clotrimazole.ga/comprar_clotrimazole.html>orden clotrimazole online</a> <a href=http://alendronates.ga>buy fosamax</a> <a href=http://alendronates.ga/achat-alendronate.html>achat Alendronate sodium</a> <a href=http://alendronates.ga/bestellen-alendronate.html>fosamax pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://alendronates.ga/compra-alendronate.html>fosamax basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://alendronates.ga/comprar-alendronate.html>comprar descuento fosamax</a> <a href=http://cetirizine1.gq> cost</a> <a href=http://cetirizine1.gq/acheter_cetirizine.html>achat Cetirizine en ligne</a> <a href=http://cetirizine1.gq/cetirizine_kaufen.html>bestellen Cetirizine online</a> <a href=http://cetirizine1.gq/comprare_cetirizine.html>Cetirizine prezzo online</a> <a href=http://cetirizine1.gq/comprar_cetirizine.html>orden Cetirizine</a> <a href=http://herealendronate.gdn>cheap Alendronate sodium</a> <a href=http://herealendronate.gdn/achat_alendronate.html>acheter générique fosamax</a> <a href=http://herealendronate.gdn/kaufen_alendronat.html>bestellen Alendronate sodium</a> <a href=http://herealendronate.gdn/comprare_alendronato.html>comprare pillole online fosamax</a> <a href=http://herealendronate.gdn/comprar_alendronato.html>comprar genérico Alendronate sodium</a> <a href=http://pantoprazoles.stream/>Protonix price</a> <a href=http://pantoprazoles.stream/achat-pantoprazole.html>commande Pantoprazole</a> <a href=http://pantoprazoles.stream/bestellen-pantoprazole.html>bestellen Pantoprazole</a> <a href=http://pantoprazoles.stream/compra-pantoprazole.html>comprare pillole online Pantoprazole</a> <a href=http://pantoprazoles.stream/comprar-pantoprazole.html>comprar Pantoprazole online</a> <a href=http://onlytetracycline.gdn>tetracycline price</a> <a href=http://onlytetracycline.gdn/acheter_tetracycline.html>au rabais tetracycline</a> <a href=http://onlytetracycline.gdn/tetracycline_kaufen.html>bestellen Sumycin online</a> <a href=http://onlytetracycline.gdn/comprare_tetracycline.html>comprare pillole online tetracycline</a> <a href=http://onlytetracycline.gdn/comprar_tetracycline.html>comprar tetracycline online</a> <a href=http://hereclotrimazole.gdn>clotrimazole price</a> <a href=http://hereclotrimazole.gdn/acheter-clotrimazole.html>clotrimazole pilules en ligne</a> <a href=http://hereclotrimazole.gdn/clotrimazol-kaufen.html>clotrimazole pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://hereclotrimazole.gdn/comprare-clotrimazolo.html>compra clotrimazole</a> <a href=http://hereclotrimazole.gdn/comprar-clotrimazol.html>clotrimazole comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://themethotrexate.gdn>purchase rheumatrex</a> <a href=http://themethotrexate.gdn/acheter-methotrexate.html>au rabais rheumatrex</a> <a href=http://themethotrexate.gdn/methotrexat-kaufen.html>kaufen methotrexate online</a> <a href=http://themethotrexate.gdn/comprare-metotressato.html>compra methotrexate</a> <a href=http://themethotrexate.gdn/comprar-metotrexato.html>rheumatrex comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://themetronidazole.gdn>order metronidazole</a> <a href=http://themetronidazole.gdn/acheter-metronidazole.html>achat metronidazole</a> <a href=http://themetronidazole.gdn/metronidazol-kaufen.html>billige Flagyl</a> <a href=http://themetronidazole.gdn/comprare-metronidazolo.html>Flagyl prezzo online</a> <a href=http://themetronidazole.gdn/comprar-metronidazol.html>descuento metronidazole</a> <a href=http://thatatorvastatin.gdn>lipitor low price</a> <a href=http://thatatorvastatin.gdn/achat-atorvastatin.html>au rabais Atorvastatin</a> <a href=http://thatatorvastatin.gdn/bestellen-atorvastatin.html>lipitor preis online</a> <a href=http://thatatorvastatin.gdn/compra-atorvastatin.html>comprare Atorvastatin</a> <a href=http://thatatorvastatin.gdn/comprar-atorvastatin.html>descuento Atorvastatin</a> <a href=http://thisfinasteride.gdn>propecia cost</a> <a href=http://thisfinasteride.gdn/acheter_finasteride.html>acheter générique Finasteride</a> <a href=http://thisfinasteride.gdn/finasteride_kaufen.html>kaufen propecia</a> <a href=http://thisfinasteride.gdn/comprare_finasteride.html>comprare pillole online Finasteride</a> <a href=http://thisfinasteride.gdn/comprar_finasteride.html>Finasteride comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://thesimvastatin.gdn>simvastatin price</a> <a href=http://thesimvastatin.gdn/acheter-simvastatine.html>zocor bas prix</a> <a href=http://thesimvastatin.gdn/simvastatin-kaufen.html>kaufen billige simvastatin</a> <a href=http://thesimvastatin.gdn/comprare-simvastatina.html>zocor basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://thesimvastatin.gdn/comprar-simvastatina.html>comprar genérico zocor</a> <a href=http://lovastatinn.gq>order mevacor online</a> <a href=http://lovastatinn.gq/acheter_lovastatin.html>acheter au rabais mevacor</a> <a href=http://lovastatinn.gq/lovastatin_kaufen.html>kaufen apotheke mevacor</a> <a href=http://lovastatinn.gq/comprare_lovastatin.html>comprare pillole online mevacor</a> <a href=http://lovastatinn.gq/comprar_lovastatin.html>barato mevacor</a> <a href=http://cetirizinee.gq>Cetirizine price</a> <a href=http://cetirizinee.gq/acheter-cetirizine.html>achat zyrtec en ligne</a> <a href=http://cetirizinee.gq/cetirizin-kaufen.html>zyrtec preis online</a> <a href=http://cetirizinee.gq/comprare-cetirizina.html>comprare Cetirizine</a> <a href=http://cetirizinee.gq/comprar-cetirizina.html>farmacia online zyrtec</a> <a href=http://simvastatinn.gq>cheap zocor</a> <a href=http://simvastatinn.gq/acheter-simvastatine.html>acheter zocor en ligne</a> <a href=http://simvastatinn.gq/simvastatin-kaufen.html>kaufen apotheke zocor</a> <a href=http://simvastatinn.gq/comprare-simvastatina.html>ordine simvastatin</a> <a href=http://simvastatinn.gq/comprar-simvastatina.html>comprar zocor</a> <a href=http://venlafaxinee.gq>Effexor price</a> <a href=http://venlafaxinee.gq/acheter_venlafaxine.html>achat Effexor</a> <a href=http://venlafaxinee.gq/venlafaxine_kaufen.html>kaufen apotheke Venlafaxine</a> <a href=http://venlafaxinee.gq/comprare_venlafaxine.html>comprare Effexor online</a> <a href=http://venlafaxinee.gq/comprar_venlafaxine.html>Venlafaxine pastillas online</a> <a href=http://methotrexatee.gq>buy rheumatrex online</a> <a href=http://methotrexatee.gq/acheter_methotrexate.html>au rabais methotrexate</a> <a href=http://methotrexatee.gq/methotrexate_kaufen.html>bestellen methotrexate online</a> <a href=http://methotrexatee.gq/comprare_methotrexate.html>comprare pillole online methotrexate</a> <a href=http://methotrexatee.gq/comprar_methotrexate.html>comprar genérico methotrexate</a> <a href=http://metronidazolee.gq>buy discount metronidazole</a> <a href=http://metronidazolee.gq/acheter_metronidazole.html>achat metronidazole en ligne</a> <a href=http://metronidazolee.gq/metronidazole_kaufen.html>kaufen billige metronidazole</a> <a href=http://metronidazolee.gq/comprare_metronidazole.html>comprare Flagyl</a> <a href=http://metronidazolee.gq/comprar_metronidazole.html>farmacia online metronidazole</a> <a href=http://heretrazodone.gq>order trazodone</a> <a href=http://heretrazodone.gq/achat-trazodone.html>acheter au rabais trazodone</a> <a href=http://heretrazodone.gq/trazodon-bestellen.html>desyrel preis online</a> <a href=http://heretrazodone.gq/comprare-trazodone.html>comprare desyrel</a> <a href=http://heretrazodone.gq/comprar-trazodona.html>desyrel pastillas online</a> <a href=http://onlineestrogen.gq>buy generic Estrace</a> <a href=http://onlineestrogen.gq/achat-estrogene.html>au rabais Estrace</a> <a href=http://onlineestrogen.gq/bestellen-ostrogen.html>bestellen Estrace</a> <a href=http://onlineestrogen.gq/comprare-estrogeni.html>estrogen basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://onlineestrogen.gq/comprar-estrogeno.html>orden estrogen</a> <a href=http://thealbuterolonline.gq>buy generic Albuterol</a> <a href=http://thealbuterolonline.gq/acheter_albuterol.html>achat Proventil en ligne</a> <a href=http://thealbuterolonline.gq/albuterol_kaufen.html>kaufen Proventil</a> <a href=http://thealbuterolonline.gq/comprare_albuterol.html>Albuterol prezzo online</a> <a href=http://thealbuterolonline.gq/comprar_albuterol.html>comprar descuento Albuterol</a> <a href=http://onlyestrogen.gq>order estrogen online</a> <a href=http://onlyestrogen.gq/achat_estrogen.html>acheter estrogen</a> <a href=http://onlyestrogen.gq/bestellen_estrogen.html>bestellen medikamente Estrace</a> <a href=http://onlyestrogen.gq/compra_estrogen.html>ordine estrogen online</a> <a href=http://onlyestrogen.gq/comprar_estrogen.html>comprar descuento Estrace</a> <a href=http://herefinasteride.gq>propecia cost</a> <a href=http://herefinasteride.gq/acheter_finasteride.html>acheter générique Finasteride</a> <a href=http://herefinasteride.gq/finasteride_kaufen.html>bestellen Finasteride</a> <a href=http://herefinasteride.gq/comprare_finasteride.html>Finasteride prezzo online</a> <a href=http://herefinasteride.gq/comprar_finasteride.html>Finasteride precio bajo</a> <a href=http://thetetracycline.gq>order tetracycline</a> <a href=http://thetetracycline.gq/acheter_tetracycline.html>Sumycin pharmacie en ligne</a> <a href=http://thetetracycline.gq/tetracycline_kaufen.html>kaufen billige Sumycin</a> <a href=http://thetetracycline.gq/comprare_tetracycline.html>Sumycin prezzo online</a> <a href=http://thetetracycline.gq/comprar_tetracycline.html>Sumycin precio bajo</a> <a href=http://thetriamcinolone.gq>triamcinolone price</a> <a href=http://thetriamcinolone.gq/acheter_triamcinolone.html>au rabais triamcinolone</a> <a href=http://thetriamcinolone.gq/triamcinolone_kaufen.html>triamcinolone preiswert</a> <a href=http://thetriamcinolone.gq/comprare_triamcinolone.html>ordine aristocort online</a> <a href=http://thetriamcinolone.gq/comprar_triamcinolone.html>orden aristocort online</a> <a href=http://onlypantoprazole.gq>Protonix low price</a> <a href=http://onlypantoprazole.gq/achat-pantoprazole.html>acheter générique Pantoprazole</a> <a href=http://onlypantoprazole.gq/bestellen-pantoprazole.html>kaufen Protonix</a> <a href=http://onlypantoprazole.gq/compra-pantoprazole.html>Pantoprazole prezzo online</a> <a href=http://onlypantoprazole.gq/comprar-pantoprazole.html>orden Pantoprazole online</a> <a href=http://thecelecoxib.gq>buy Celecoxib online</a> <a href=http://thecelecoxib.gq/achat-celecoxib.html>pharmacie acheter Celecoxib</a> <a href=http://thecelecoxib.gq/bestellen-celecoxib.html>kaufen Celecoxib online</a> <a href=http://thecelecoxib.gq/compra-celecoxib.html>farmaci online celebrex</a> <a href=http://thecelecoxib.gq/comprar-celecoxib.html>Celecoxib comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://herequetiapine.gq>buy discount Quetiapine</a> <a href=http://herequetiapine.gq/achat-quetiapine.html>achat Quetiapine</a> <a href=http://herequetiapine.gq/bestellen-quetiapine.html>kaufen apotheke seroquel</a> <a href=http://herequetiapine.gq/compra-quetiapine.html>comprare Quetiapine</a> <a href=http://herequetiapine.gq/comprar-quetiapine.html>comprar seroquel</a> <a href=http://onlyatorvastatin.gq>Atorvastatin cost</a> <a href=http://onlyatorvastatin.gq/achat-atorvastatin.html>commande Atorvastatin</a> <a href=http://onlyatorvastatin.gq/bestellen-atorvastatin.html>Atorvastatin pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://onlyatorvastatin.gq/compra-atorvastatin.html>comprare pillole online lipitor</a> <a href=http://onlyatorvastatin.gq/comprar-atorvastatin.html>lipitor precio bajo</a> <a href=http://thebuspirone.gq>discount buspar</a> <a href=http://thebuspirone.gq/acheter_buspirone.html>achat buspar</a> <a href=http://thebuspirone.gq/buspirone_kaufen.html>kaufen apotheke buspar</a> <a href=http://thebuspirone.gq/comprare_buspirone.html>ordine buspar online</a> <a href=http://thebuspirone.gq/comprar_buspirone.html>descuento Buspirone</a> <a href=http://onlineamitriptyline.gq>buy discount elavil</a> <a href=http://onlineamitriptyline.gq/acheter_amitriptyline.html>au rabais Amitriptyline</a> <a href=http://onlineamitriptyline.gq/amitriptyline_kaufen.html>elavil pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://onlineamitriptyline.gq/comprare_amitriptyline.html>elavil prezzo online</a> <a href=http://onlineamitriptyline.gq/comprar_amitriptyline.html>Amitriptyline comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://theparoxetine.gq>purchase Paxil</a> <a href=http://theparoxetine.gq/acheter_paroxetine.html>acheter au rabais paroxetine</a> <a href=http://theparoxetine.gq/paroxetine_kaufen.html>billige paroxetine</a> <a href=http://theparoxetine.gq/comprare_paroxetine.html>Paxil basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://theparoxetine.gq/comprar_paroxetine.html>comprar Paxil online</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq>malaria treatment</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq/malariafr.html>symptômes de malaria</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq/malariade.html>malaria Pillen online</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq/malariapt.html>sintomas da malária</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq/malariaes.html>Diagnóstico de Malaria</a> <a href=http://allaboutmalaria.gq/malariait.html>FARMACI PER TRATTARE LA MALARIA</a> <a href=http://buspirone1.gq>Buspirone price</a> <a href=http://buspirone1.gq/acheter_buspirone.html>au rabais buspar</a> <a href=http://buspirone1.gq/buspirone_kaufen.html>bestellen medikamente buspar</a> <a href=http://buspirone1.gq/comprare_buspirone.html>ordine Buspirone</a> <a href=http://buspirone1.gq/comprar_buspirone.html>comprar descuento buspar</a> <a href=http://citalopramm.gq>discount celexa</a> <a href=http://citalopramm.gq/acheter_citalopram.html>acheter celexa</a> <a href=http://citalopramm.gq/citalopram_kaufen.html>kaufen generika celexa</a> <a href=http://citalopramm.gq/comprare_citalopram.html>comprare generico Citalopram</a> <a href=http://citalopramm.gq/comprar_citalopram.html>barato Citalopram</a> <a href=http://onlyerythromycine.gdn>buy Erythromycin online</a> <a href=http://onlyerythromycine.gdn/acheter-erythromycine.html>commande Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://onlyerythromycine.gdn/erythromycin-kaufen.html>kaufen billige Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://onlyerythromycine.gdn/comprare-eritromicina.html>Erythromycin medica farmaci</a> <a href=http://onlyerythromycine.gdn/comprar-eritromicina.html>comprar Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://antabusee.gq>order disulfiram online</a> <a href=http://antabusee.gq/achat-antabuse.html>acheter Antabuse en ligne</a> <a href=http://antabusee.gq/bestellen-antabuse.html>disulfiram pillen apotheke online</a> <a href=http://antabusee.gq/compra-antabuse.html>farmaci online Antabuse</a> <a href=http://antabusee.gq/comprar-antabuse.html>orden disulfiram</a> <a href=http://fluconazoles.gq>purchase Diflucan</a> <a href=http://fluconazoles.gq/acheter_fluconazole.php>acheter au rabais Diflucan</a> <a href=http://fluconazoles.gq/fluconazole_kaufen.php>kaufen billige fluconazole</a> <a href=http://fluconazoles.gq/comprare_fluconazole.php>fluconazole basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://fluconazoles.gq/comprar_fluconazole.php>fluconazole comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://thisamoxicillin.gdn>buy generic amoxil</a> <a href=http://thisamoxicillin.gdn/acheter_amoxicillin.html>pharmacie acheter Amoxicillin</a> <a href=http://thisamoxicillin.gdn/amoxicillin_kaufen.html>kaufen amoxil online</a> <a href=http://thisamoxicillin.gdn/comprare_amoxicillin.html>ordine Amoxicillin</a> <a href=http://thisamoxicillin.gdn/comprar_amoxicillin.html>comprar amoxil online</a> <a href=http://justazithromycinhere.gdn>buy generic Azithromycin</a> <a href=http://justazithromycinhere.gdn/acheter-azithromycine.html>zithromax pharmacie en ligne</a> <a href=http://justazithromycinhere.gdn/azithromycin-kaufen.html>Azithromycin preis online</a> <a href=http://justazithromycinhere.gdn/comprare-azitromicina.html>farmaci online zithromax</a> <a href=http://justazithromycinhere.gdn/comprar-azitromicina.html>comprar genérico Azithromycin</a> <a href=http://penisenlargement.science>order VPXL</a> <a href=http://onlypropranolol.gdn>inderal price</a> <a href=http://onlypropranolol.gdn/acheter_propranolol.html>achat Propranolol</a> <a href=http://onlypropranolol.gdn/propranolol_kaufen.html>billige inderal</a> <a href=http://onlypropranolol.gdn/comprare_propranolol.html>inderal medica farmaci</a> <a href=http://onlypropranolol.gdn/comprar_propranolol.html>comprar Propranolol</a> <a href=http://thequetiapine.gdn>purchase seroquel</a> <a href=http://thequetiapine.gdn/achat-quetiapine.html>acheter au rabais seroquel</a> <a href=http://thequetiapine.gdn/bestellen-quetiapine.html>billige seroquel</a> <a href=http://thequetiapine.gdn/compra-quetiapine.html>ordine Quetiapine online</a> <a href=http://thequetiapine.gdn/comprar-quetiapine.html>barato Quetiapine</a> <a href=http://thyroxyne1.stream>order synthroid online</a> <a href=http://thyroxyne1.stream/acheter-thyroxine.html>commande synthroid</a> <a href=http://thyroxyne1.stream/thyroxin-bestellen.html>billige Levothyroxine</a> <a href=http://thyroxyne1.stream/comprare-tiroxina.html>comprare generico Levothyroxine</a> <a href=http://thyroxyne1.stream/comprar-tiroxina.html>synthroid comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://thatciprofloxacin.gdn>order cipro online</a> <a href=http://thatciprofloxacin.gdn/acheter_ciprofloxacin.html>cipro bas prix</a> <a href=http://thatciprofloxacin.gdn/ciprofloxacin_kaufen.html>kaufen billige cipro</a> <a href=http://thatciprofloxacin.gdn/comprare_ciprofloxacin.html>cipro basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://thatciprofloxacin.gdn/comprar_ciprofloxacin.html>orden cipro</a> <a href=http://thebupropion.gdn>buy generic Bupropion</a> <a href=http://thebupropion.gdn/achat-bupropion.html>zyban pharmacie en ligne</a> <a href=http://thebupropion.gdn/bupropion-bestellen.html>kaufen generika Wellbutrin Sr</a> <a href=http://thebupropion.gdn/comprare-bupropione.html>ordine Bupropion online</a> <a href=http://thebupropion.gdn/comprar-bupropion.html>orden zyban</a> <a href=http://hereerythromycin.gdn>buy discount Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://hereerythromycin.gdn/erythromycin_acheter.html>pharmacie acheter Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://hereerythromycin.gdn/erythromycin_kaufen.html>kaufen ilosone online</a> <a href=http://hereerythromycin.gdn/erythromycin_comprare.html>comprare pillole online Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://hereerythromycin.gdn/erythromycin_comprar.html>barato Erythromycin</a> <a href=http://onlysildenafil.gq>cheap viagra</a> <a href=http://onlysildenafil.gq/acheter_sildenafil.html>acheter viagra</a> <a href=http://onlysildenafil.gq/sildenafil_bestellen.html>kaufen apotheke viagra</a> <a href=http://onlysildenafil.gq/comprare_sildenafil.html>comprare viagra online</a> <a href=http://onlysildenafil.gq/comprar_sildenafil.html>comprar genérico Sildenafil</a> <a href=http://misoprostols.gq>buy generic Misoprostol</a> <a href=http://misoprostols.gq/acheter_misoprostol.html>Cytotec pilules en ligne</a> <a href=http://misoprostols.gq/misoprostol_kaufen.html>kaufen billige Cytotec</a> <a href=http://misoprostols.gq/comprare_misoprostol.html>comprare Cytotec online</a> <a href=http://misoprostols.gq/comprar_misoprostol.html>Cytotec pastillas online</a> <a href=http://propranololl.gq>inderal low price</a> <a href=http://propranololl.gq/acheter_propranolol.html>acheter inderal</a> <a href=http://propranololl.gq/propranolol_kaufen.html>kaufen generika inderal</a> <a href=http://propranololl.gq/comprare_propranolol.html>ordine Propranolol</a> <a href=http://propranololl.gq/comprar_propranolol.html>descuento Propranolol</a> <a href=http://sertralinee.gq>buy discount zoloft</a> <a href=http://sertralinee.gq/acheter_sertraline.html>acheter au rabais zoloft</a> <a href=http://sertralinee.gq/sertraline_kaufen.html>bestellen sertraline</a> <a href=http://sertralinee.gq/comprare_sertraline.html>farmaci online zoloft</a> <a href=http://sertralinee.gq/comprar_sertraline.html>comprar zoloft online</a> <a href=http://fluoxetinee.gq>buy fluoxetine online</a> <a href=http://fluoxetinee.gq/acheter-fluoxetine.html>prozac pilules en ligne</a> <a href=http://fluoxetinee.gq/fluoxetin-bestellen.html>kaufen billige prozac</a> <a href=http://fluoxetinee.gq/comprare-fluoxetina.html>comprare pillole online fluoxetine</a> <a href=http://fluoxetinee.gq/comprar-fluoxetina.html>orden fluoxetine</a> <a href=http://azithromycinn.gq>buy zithromax online</a> <a href=http://azithromycinn.gq/acheter-azithromycine.html>acheter générique zithromax</a> <a href=http://azithromycinn.gq/azithromycin-kaufen.html>kaufen apotheke Azithromycin</a> <a href=http://azithromycinn.gq/comprare-azitromicina.html>comprare generico Azithromycin</a> <a href=http://azithromycinn.gq/comprar-azitromicina.html>comprar genérico zithromax</a> <a href=http://herealbuterol.gq>purchase Combivent</a> <a href=http://herealbuterol.gq/achat-albuterol.html>acheter Combivent en ligne</a> <a href=http://herealbuterol.gq/albuterol-kaufen.html>bestellen Combivent</a> <a href=http://herealbuterol.gq/comprare-salbutamolo.html>ordine Proventil online</a> <a href=http://herealbuterol.gq/comprar-albuterol.html>Albuterol comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://onlytamsulosin.gq>cheap flomax</a> <a href=http://onlytamsulosin.gq/acheter_tamsulosine.html>acheter tamsulosin</a> <a href=http://onlytamsulosin.gq/tamsulosin_kaufen.html>kaufen flomax online</a> <a href=http://onlytamsulosin.gq/comprare_tamsulosina.html>tamsulosin basso prezzo</a> <a href=http://onlytamsulosin.gq/comprar_tamsulosina.html>tamsulosin comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://thevardenafilonline.gq>order levitra online</a> <a href=http://thevardenafilonline.gq/achat_vardenafil.html>au rabais vardenafil</a> <a href=http://thevardenafilonline.gq/vardenafil_bestellen.html>kaufen levitra online</a> <a href=http://thevardenafilonline.gq/acquisitare_vardenafil.html>ordine levitra</a> <a href=http://thevardenafilonline.gq/comprar_vardenafilo.html>comprar vardenafil online</a> <a href=http://wheredoxepin.gq>buy Doxepin</a> <a href=http://wheredoxepin.gq/acheter_doxepin.html>acheter au rabais sinequan</a> <a href=http://wheredoxepin.gq/doxepin_kaufen.html>bestellen medikamente sinequan</a> <a href=http://wheredoxepin.gq/comprare_doxepin.html>comprare Doxepin online</a> <a href=http://wheredoxepin.gq/comprar_doxepin.html>Doxepin comprimidos online</a> <a href=http://onlinelevothyroxine.gq>order synthroid online</a> <a href=http://onlinelevothyroxine.gq/levothyroxine_achat.html>synthroid pharmacie en ligne</a> <a href=http://onlinelevothyroxine.gq/levothyroxine_bestellen.html>bestellen synthroid online</a> <a href=http://onlinelevothyroxine.gq/levothyroxine_comprare.html>ordine Levothyroxine</a> <a href=http://onlinelevothyroxine.gq/levothyroxine_comprar.html>orden Levothyroxine online</a> <a href=http://heredoxycycline.gq>Doxycycline price</a> <a href=http://heredoxycycline.gq/acheter_doxycycline.php>au rabais Doxycycline</a> <a href=http://heredoxycycline.gq/doxycycline_kaufen.php>bestellen Doxycycline online</a> <a href=http://heredoxycycline.gq/comprare_doxycycline.php>comprare pillole online Doxycycline</a> <a href=http://heredoxycycline.gq/comprar_doxycycline.php>Doxycycline pastillas online</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq>antibiotics advice</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-class.html>tetracyclines</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-types.html>Antibiotics types</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-resistance.html>resistance to antibiotics</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-production.html>Antibiotics topical</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-penicillin.html>Beta-lactam antibiotics</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-erythromycin.html>Erythromycin ointment</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-azithromycin.html>Azithromycin</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-tetracycline.html>Tetracycline review</a> <a href=http://adviseantibiotics.gq/antibiotics-amoxicillin.html>Amoxicillin</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/effexor.php>order effexor</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/celexa.php>order celexa online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/lexapro.php>order lexapro 20 mg online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/celebrex.php>order celebrex 200 mg online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/propecia.php>discount propecia</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/avandia.php>discount avandia</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/avandia8.php>buy avandia online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/levaquin.php>buy generic levaquin</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zithromax500.php>order zithromax 500 mg online</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/zithromax.php>purchase zithromax 250 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/keflex.php>keflex 500 mg price</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/keflex250.php>keflex 250 mg cost</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/danazol.php>Danazol 200 mg price</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/danazol100.php>buy generic Danazol 100 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/danazol50.php>purchase Danazol 50 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/clomid.php>discount clomid 50 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/diflucan.php>discount diflucan 150 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/evista.php>evista price</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/fosamax.php>purchase fosamax</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/flomax.php>buy discount flomax 0.4 mg</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/drugs/nexium.php>nexium 20 mg cost</a> <a href=http://dr1m1acy.info/index.php>pharmacy online</a>

The root of pan-adaptationism?

There’s been a fair bit of recent discussion about why most biologists are (uncritically) adaptationists. I don’t dispute this but think it’s worth reconsidering why. Some have argued that this is because of intuition (adaptation just makes sense). However I think a better explanation lies in how we teach - or fail to teach - evolution and acknowledge that teaching non-adaptive evolutionary processes is difficult. Most biologists haven’t had a full course in evolution. Instead, most have had a week or two in their college introductory biology class and if lucky, one week in their high school biology class. If they went to graduate school, they likely had no coursework that explicitly considers evolutionary biology. This is also true for most teachers, so most do not understand evolutionary biology with enough comfort to go beyond well-trodden examples of adaptations to explore with students how and why evolution may not be adaptive. We also must recognize that understanding sources and effects of non-adaptive variation is difficult. It takes a certain depth of education in evolutionary biology to be able to teach non-adaptive processes well. Understanding drift, mutation, and recombination depends more heavily on understanding of statistics and probability, topics that are also generally lacking for most scientists and educators.Another problem is more philosophical, but I think equally important. I wrote the following in my Teaching Statement for my tenure packet several years ago.

“One of Darwin’s most important contributions, many have argued^^1, is that he replaced “typological thinking” with “population thinking.” For typologists, the “wild type” is central to all scientific inquiry; for population thinkers, the “wild type” is an average of many individuals whose variation is the subject of study. Yet this dichotomy still pervades biological education and research. Nearly all of what we are taught in biology begins with a description of discrete characters with certain function: this enzyme performs that reaction, this species lives in that environment. This may be a necessary starting point, but we rarely progress to illustrate that these “facts” are actually average population phenotypes that may not actually exist in any one individual. In my discipline of microbiology it is almost impossible to study single individuals, so the entire field relies on populations usually without recognizing this point. This shortcoming in our curricula likely contributes to how readily we overemphasize differences among individuals and to the widespread doubt of the effectiveness of evolution.”

Here, the relevant point is that if most students believe in an idealized wild-type, then diversity is underestimated and under- appreciated. Appreciating genetic drift is therefore even more remote. If we wish to tackle these problems with biology education, one solution might include developing examples that includes both adaptive and non-adaptive processes. Building in concepts of probability and effects of population size (think conservation genetics) would also be very helpful. Above all, getting teachers to invest more than the standard “one week at the end of the semester” to teach evolution would be a huge victory, one that would benefit all of our education in biology.

[1] Mayr, E. Evolution and the Diversity of Life, 1975; Sober, E. “Evolution, Population Thinking, and Essentialism” in Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, 1994